Psalm 51: 3-4, 12-13, 14-15
This week our responsorial psalm comes from Psalm 51, one of the most familiar of the seven Penitential Psalms (the others are Psalms 6, 32, 38, 102, 130, and 143). This Christian designation dates from the 7th century AD for psalms suitable to express repentance. Have mercy on me, O God, in your goodness; in the greatness of your compassion wipe out my offense.
The passage begins with a plea for mercy in the face of guilt, appealing to God’s covenant dispositions: goodness (hesed) and compassion or womb-love, the kind of attachment a mother has to the child she has carried in her womb (rahămîm). The first refers to the steadfast love that characterizes that relationship between covenant partners; the second is the attitude God has toward those who have violated the covenant bond.
Of the three words used for sin, “offense” (pesha’) is the word that implies a breach in relationship. The term itself is a collective, denoting the sum of misdeeds and rebellion of the gravest nature, such as a violation of the covenant bond.
Thoroughly wash me from my guilt and of my sin cleanse me.
“Guilt” (‘āwōn) denotes twisted behavior or perversion. It too has a collective connotation, meaning that this is not merely one infraction but a manner of behavior.
The third term, hattā’â, is the most commonly used word for “sin” and is a much more technical term. It comes from the verb that means “miss the mark” and it connotes violation of some law or statute. The failure involved is usually deliberate, not accidental.
The psalmist uses three very dynamic verbs when asking for forgiveness:
- “wipe out,” which suggests vigorous erasing,
- “wash,” which implies the treading or pounding that was involved in washing clothes, and
- “cleanse,” which indicates a deep cleansing of dross from metal or disease from the body.
The very language shows that the admission of guilt and the plea for forgiveness are profound and comprehensive.
A clean heart create for me, O God, and a steadfast spirit renew within me.
Realizing that the seriousness of the offenses calls for a thorough transformation, the psalmist prays for a clean heart and a spirit that will not falter (see Ezekiel 11:19). The technical term for “create” (bārā’) is used, indicating that the psalmist is asking for a radical transformation and acknowledging that only God can effect it.
Where there is divine creation, there is a new order of existence. It is this for which the psalmist prays.
Cast me not out from your presence, and your Holy Spirit take not from me. Give me back the joy of your salvation, and a willing spirit sustain in me.
The prayer is cast in negative terms as well: do not cast me from your presence, do not take your Spirit from me. Instead, restore the joy of salvation that I forfeited, and instill in me a spirit that will freely accept the responsibilities of this new relationship.
Having previously rebelled and violated the covenant bond, the psalmist now begs for an intimate connection with God.
I will teach transgressors your ways, and sinners shall return to you.
The passage ends with a pledge. Having been created anew, the psalmist promises to teach other transgressors about God’s ways. This can either mean the way God works or the way God wants us to behave.
Both meanings are relevant here: within the first meaning, the very one who rebelled against covenant responsibilities is now a witness to God’s lovingkindness and merciful love; within the second meaning, the repentant, re-created psalmist will now promote fidelity to covenant obligations.